Structural and stratigraphic evidence from the Ogallala Formation (Neogene) documents late Miocene tectonic activity within the Great Plains. Field and subsurface studies in the Texas Panhandle indicate that parts of the Amarillo uplift, a major element of the Pennsylvanian Ancestral Rocky Mountains, were elevated as much as 150 m during initial deposition of the Ogallala Formation. Reactivation of these basement structures occurred in response to Basin and Range extension and opening of the Rio Grande rift in central New Mexico and Colorado.

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