Fay Woodruff, Samuel M. Savin; δ13C values of Miocene Pacific benthic foraminifera: Correlations with sea level and biological productivity. Geology ; 13 (2): 119–122. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1985)13<119:CVOMPB>2.0.CO;2
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13C/12C ratios of Miocene benthic foraminifera from 22 Pacific Ocean sites vary with time but are similar at almost all sites in any restricted interval. δ13C values are correlated with sea levels inferred from onlap/offlap curves, reflecting the deposition of greater amounts of organic matter on the continental shelves during transgressions. Differences in δ13C between sites are correlated with local differences in biological productivity in the overlying surface waters. 13C/12C values of benthic foraminifera show promise as indicators of marine paleoproductivity.