Commercially available Thermit (Al + Fe3O4) was ignited, forming a molten mixture of Al2O3 + Fe. The subsequent mixing of this melt with water in steel containers produced explosive interactions that were used to model hydrovolcanic activity. Debris collected from the experiments consisted of quenched Thermit particles ranging in size from <1 µm to centimetres. Scanning electron microscopy of the debris showed spheroidal, irregular aggregates and blocky particle shapes that are very similar to hydrovolcanic ash, as well as some types of stratospheric dust and industrial fly ash.

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