New paleomagnetic data support the contention that Armorica and Gondwana formed a coherent block until Ordovician time. However, by Early Devonian time, Armorica collided with the North American–northern European assembly to form the Old Red Continent, and the collision itself was responsible for the Acadian orogeny, not for the earlier Taconic orogeny as postulated previously. The Carboniferous collision of Gondwana with the Old Red Continent subsequently formed Pangaea and produced the Appalachian-Hercynian orogeny.

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