Surface features on the flanks of martian shield volcanoes photographed by Mariner 9 are identified as lava flow channels, rift zones, and partly collapsed lava tubes by comparisons with similar structures on the flanks of Mauna Loa shield volcano, Hawaii. From these identifications, the composition of the martian lava flows is interpreted to be basaltic, with viscosities ranging from those of fluid pahoehoe to more viscous aa.

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