Reviews in Engineering Geology
This is the second in a series of volumes prepared by the Geological Society of America Division on Engineering Geology designed to summarize the states of knowledge on various aspects of the application of geology to engineering problems. Through an unfortunate series of delays, publication of the book was delayed several years beyond the completion of the contained papers. The geologic principles are still sound, however, and are certain to be useful to the practicing engineering geologist. Nine papers review the following subjects: foundations for heavy structures; geology and pedology in highway soil engineering; clay as a canal sealant; Portland cement and concrete; pozzolan; geocryology and engineering; land subsidence due to withdrawal of fluids; land subsidence due to the application of water; and geologic settings of subsidence.
Disciplines used by the geologist for understanding and interpreting the chemical and physical properties of rocks have also been used to investigate the constitution of portland cement, its hydration mechanisms, and those factors that influence the durability of concrete made with it. The information obtained helped in developing specifications and testing methods for concrete aggregates and eight types of portland cement.
The geologist and the engineering geologist, who participate in portland cement or aggregate production and testing or who are involved in geological studies related to the design and construction of concrete structures, can review herein: (1) the constitution of portland cement; (2) portland cement specifications of the American Society for Testing and Materials, American Association of State Highway Officials, and United States Government (Federal); (3) the eight types of portland cement and factors governing their usage; and (4) the more prevalent physical and chemical types of attack upon concrete by natural agencies and methods for circumventing such attack. This information may be helpful for evaluating and interpreting the data obtained in cement and concrete research concerned with quarrying operations, cement and aggregate production, and concrete uses and durability.