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The Arctic Lowlands as defined for this chapter includes the Arctic Coastal Plains of Canada and Alaska and the western Arctic Islands of Canada (Fig. 1). In this chapter we discuss landforms and geomorphic processes that are characteristic of this part of North America, processes whose attributes are significantly different in the Arctic Lowlands than elsewhere, and landforms that occur elsewhere but have been studied most extensively in the Arctic Lowlands. Landforms and processes included are associated with the formation and degradation of ground ice, fluvial processes in the arctic environment, arctic coastal processes, and the formation of oriented lakes. We also discuss the sensitivity of the landscape of the Arctic Lowlands to human activity and to climatic change. Finally, we present recommendations for geomorphological research that will help us to better understand the evolution of the landscape of this region and to predict the effects on this landscape of natural or human-induced environmental perturbations. Brief descriptions of the physiography, climate, permafrost, and vegetation are presented as background for these discussions.

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