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Hydrovolcanic eruptions occur when rising magma violently fragments while mixing with shallow surface water or groundwater. These eruptions, among the most violent on Earth, generate hundreds to thousands of explosions throughout the course of an eruptive event. Each of these explosions ejects a mixture of juvenile and accidental clasts, gas, and water droplets. The solid materials either fall to the ground from tephra jets or collapse to form pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). The deposits of these eruptions build up rings of bedded tuff around the vent, recording both a wide variety of pyroclastic depositional mechanisms, and important changes in...

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