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High-latitude polar regions of the Earth have experienced cold, cool, and temperature paleoclimates in the course of their geologic history, but they have probably always been colder than low-latitude continents and oceans. Extreme climates leading to development of extensive frozen and ice-covered regions at high latitudes can, however, only be documented for a few, relatively short intervals of the Earth’s history, separated by long time spans with little or no ice (Frakes, 1979). The Cenozoic evolution of glacial-type climates during the past 30 to 40 m.y. is the most recent period of extreme climate, and differs from the preceding...

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