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The Arctic Ocean is unique among the world’s oceans because of its perennial ice cover. The geologic and climatologic factors that contributed to development of the Arctic Ocean ice cover are understood in a general way, even though the precise mechanism and time during the Cenozoic that the first ice cover formed are not known. Data concerning climatological processes that encouraged development of an Arctic Ocean ice cover have developed from the general understanding of the paleogeographic sequence of events since the last major time of ice-free conditions during the Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. The lack of facts concerning...

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