At its maximum extent in February/March, sea ice covers about 10% of the total ocean surface in the Northern Hemisphere (Fig. 1). Except for some narrow bands along the North American and Siberian coasts, the Central Arctic Basin is ice covered throughout the year. Seasonal ice (winter only) occurs in the marginal seas: Okhotsk, Bering, Kara, Barents, Baltic, Southern Greenland, Baffin Bay-Davis Strait, Hudson’s Bay, and Canadian Archipelago (Plate 1).
The physical constitution of sea ice is that of an aggregate of pieces, ranging in size from small crystals (frazil) and fragments (brash) to solid plates many kilometers in...
Figures & Tables
The Arctic Ocean Region
Most Quaternary sediments in North America north of 45 ON post-date the last deglaciation. This volume looks at those extensive deposits from the standpoints of timing, cause, and mechanism of the wastage of North American ice during the last deglaciation and the accompanying environmental changes in the nonglaciated and deglaciated areas. It particularly examines the mechanisms by which a mass of ice equivalent to 100 m of global sea-level was returned to the ocean within about 8,000 years. A truly comprehensive synthesis of marine and terrestrial information in 22 chapters grouped into five sections: Chronology of Disintegration of the North American Ice Sheets, Ice Core and Other Glaciological Data, the Nonglacial Physical Record on the Continent, Biological Record on the Continent, and Analysis and Summary. Includes two oversize color plates showing time-series maps of pollen densities and vegetation changes since 18 ka.