Landslides and Engineering Geology of the Seattle, Washington, Area
This volume brings together case studies and summary papers describing the application of state-of-the-art engineering geologic methods to landslide hazard analysis for the Seattle, Washington, area. An introductory chapter provides a thorough description of the Quaternary and bedrock geology of Seattle. Nine additional chapters review the history of landslide mapping in Seattle, present case studies of individual landslides, describe the results of spatial assessments of landslide hazard, discuss hydrologic controls on landsliding, and outline an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides.
Thomas C. Badger, 2008. "Peat flow in Mercer Slough, Lake Washington", Landslides and Engineering Geology of the Seattle, Washington, Area, Rex L. Baum, Jonathan W. Godt, Lynn M. Highland
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Over the past four decades, ongoing deformation of an 18-m-thick peat deposit within the flat-lying Mercer Slough has resulted in damaging deflections, and near-collapse in three cases, of pile-supported Interstate 90 bridges and a major water line on the east side of the slough. The peat is partially underlain by a dense sand unit, which includes a highly pressurized aquifer that produces artesian flow 1–2.5 m above the ground surface. Inclinometers on the east side of the slough show the peat flowing toward the structures and then apparently directed west along the interstate centerline. Large displacements recorded in several inclinometers near the center of the slough suggest a length of deforming peat that approaches 600 m, which is likely initiating retrogressively. Potential causal mechanisms include poor engineering characteristics of the peat, presence of high hydrostatic pressure transmitted within and beneath the peat, seasonal water-level variations of Lake Washington and induced hydraulic gradients within the peat, dredging of the Mercer Slough channel, puncturing of the underlying aquifer by numerous pile foundations, and fill placement along the eastern margin of the slough. The peat is flowing around the pile/shaft foundations; however, excessive lateral loads are still being applied to the foundations in a poorly understood and unpredictable manner. The most severe deflections have occurred in the outermost structures where the peat is primarily flowing transverse to the structures.