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Most cities in the United States are within one or two physiographic units, and only a few major rock and soil types must be dealt with in civil works in different parts of a city. New York City's five counties, however, cover three physiographic units (the Coastal Plain, New England Upland, and Triassic Lowland), which contain nine different foundation rock types and dozens of soils. The foundation types range from high-strength gneissoid granite through soluble marble to soft-sensitive, low shear strength, and high moisture content, organic silty clay having very limited bearing capacity. Each rock and soil type has...

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