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The branches of engineering most profoundly affected by geological factors are mining, petroleum, and civil engineering. The value of the professional geologist in mining and petroleum engineering has long been recognized, and no review of achievement is necessary to establish his important place in these fields. But it is only within comparatively recent years that the change has come which recognizes that an experienced engineering geologist is an essential part of an organization engaged in locating, planning, and constructing large civil engineering projects. This change has resulted, primarily, from two influences: (1) the large and growing demand of the civil engineering profession for a better understanding of the geologic factors involved in heavy construction–particularly the building of dams and allied hydraulic structures, and (2) the increasing ability of the geologist to apply his science in terms of engineering requirements. With this change, the demand for professional geological services has grown from an occasional call for advice from the consultant to the full-time utilization of large geologic groups composed of personnel trained and equipped for service in the civil engineering organization. Today, most engineering organizations engaged in heavy construction are alive to the fact that competent study and development of geological conditions employing the most modern techniques and tools in the hands of experienced investigators are required to give reasonable assurance that the geologic factors have been adequately developed and met.

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