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Tehran, the capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a case of unplanned urban development. About 12% of Iranians are Tehran dwellers, and geology plays a major role in their environment. The city is located in northern Iran in the foothills of the Alborz Mountains. Sediments underlying the city are composed of coarse (northern part of Tehran) to very fine (southern part of Tehran) sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone with interbeds of gravels and pebbles in various proportions up to a depth of 1600 m. The early settlers were attracted to the area because there were bountiful springs and kanats...

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