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In the late 1950s to early 1960s, there was a paradigm shift in the study of caves and karst. Instead of a science of speleology, the focus changed to using caves and their contents to provide information of much wider geological interest. Cave and karst science has also borrowed heavily from other sciences. One technique that was borrowed was the restructuring of carbonate chemistry to define saturation index, CO2 partial pressure, and other parameters that are widely used to describe karst waters. Equilibrium chemistry was followed by chemical kinetics, which proved to be the key to understanding the development...

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