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The Aftershock Imaging with Dense Arrays (AIDA) project recorded 12 days of high-density seismic array data following the 23 August 2011 Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake. AIDA utilized short-period, vertical-component seismographs at 201 locations to record closely spaced data that would reduce spatial aliasing. Interstation correlation enabled a detection threshold between magnitude −1.5 and −2. A joint hypocenter and velocity inversion algorithm was applied to compressional and shear wave arrival times for 300 of the larger events. Traveltime misfits were minimized using a constant velocity of Vp = 6.2–6.25 and Vs = 3.61–3.63. Hypocenter location error estimates for this range of velocities are ~100 m. Little to no three-dimensional variation exists in the seismic velocity of the upper crust, consistent with the aftershock zone being within a single crystalline rock terrane. The hypocenter locations define a 1–2-km-wide cloud with a strike of ~029° and dip of ~53°E, consistent with the focal mechanism of the main shock. The cloud bends ~5° along strike and has a slightly shallower dip angle below ~6 km depth, indicating a broad, complex fault zone with a slightly concave shape. This study shows that seismic arrays comparable to those used in controlled-source seismology can be successfully applied to aftershock sequences, and that dense array data can produce high-resolution information about earthquake rupture zones.

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