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Deccan volcanism, one of Earth's largest flood basalt provinces, erupted ~80% of its total volume (phase 2) during a relatively short time in the uppermost Maastrichtian paleomagnetic chron C29r and ended with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary mass extinction. Full biotic recovery in the marine realm was delayed at least 500 k.y. or until after the last Deccan eruptions in C29n (phase 3, 14% of the total Deccan volume). For over 30 yr, the mass extinction has been commonly attributed to the Chicxulub impact, and the delayed recovery remained an enigma. Here, we demonstrate that the two phases of Deccan volcanism can...

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