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During the last ~100 years, tectonic geodesy has evolved from sparse field-based measurements of crustal deformation to the use of space geodetic techniques involving observations of satellites and from satellites orbiting Earth, which reveal a variety of tectonic processes acting over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Early terrestrial measurements using triangulation and leveling techniques characterized large displacements associated with great earthquakes and led to the recognition of the fundamental mechanics of seismic faulting and the earthquake cycle. More precise measurements using ground-based laser ranging allowed for the characterization and modeling of interseismic strain buildup and determination of...

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