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The crater lake at Santa Ana Volcano (El Salvador) was monitored during 1992–1993 and 2002–2007. Crater lake chemistry was generally similar until the 2005 eruption. Acidification of the hydrothermal system by condensing magmatic gases yielded fluids that sustained a cool acid sulfate-chloride lake roughly 200 m in diameter (temperature = 16–28 °C, pH = 0.7–2.0, SO4 2− = 4500–14,000 mg/L, Cl = 1100–9200 mg/L, total dissolved solids [TDS] = 7000–25,000 mg/L).

The phreatomagmatic eruption Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 3 of October 2005 modified the summit crater morphology, leading to physical, thermal, and chemical changes in the lake over...

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