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We examined Grande Ronde Basalt lava flows from surface sections and boreholes throughout Washington, Oregon, and Idaho to determine chemical and physical properties that would allow the recognition and mapping of these flows on a regional scale. We estimate there are ~100 flows covering nearly 170,000 km2, with a total volume of ~150,400 km3, that were erupted over four polarity intervals (reverse 1, normal 1, reverse 2, and normal 2) in ~0.42 m.y. These flows are the largest known on Earth, with individual volumes ranging from ~100 km3 to greater than 10,000 km3....

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