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We studied the oxidation state of Fe in silicate glasses produced during the first atomic bomb blast at the Trinity test site (New Mexico) by X-ray absorption–near edge spectroscopy (XANES). The sample consists of green glass resulting from melting of the quartz-bearing sand present at the test site; some relict unmelted sand is still fused to the bottom of the sample. Comparison of the pre-edge peak data with model compounds of known Fe oxidation state and coordination number shows that in the Trinity glass sample, Fe is in the divalent state and, on average, in a mixture of 4- and...

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