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Cerro do Jarau is a prominent, ~13.5-km-wide, circular landform rising >200 m above the plains of the “pampas” in southern Brazil. The name (meaning Jarau hills) comes from the prominent crests of silicified sandstones, which form a semiring of elevated hills in the northern part of the structure. The origin of this structure has been debated for decades, and varied suggestions of its formation include either endogenous tectonic processes or large meteorite impact. However, no conclusive evidence to support either hypothesis has been presented to date. This structure was formed in Mesozoic volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Paraná Basin and consists...

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