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We discuss pollen, soil, geomorphologic, and archaeological records used for reconstructing climatic, biogeographic, and human-environment events in the Crimean Peninsula during the past 130 k.y. Warm and moist conditions conducive to forest growth prevailed during the Eemian Interglacial (marine isotope stage [MIS] 5e). Although sea levels were higher than at present, a review of the stratigraphic and geomorphic data suggests that the peninsula was not detached from the mainland. During the last glacial period (MIS 5d–MIS 2), conditions fluctuated between steppe and tree growth in warmer places during the stadials, and forest-steppe during the interstadials. The Pleistocene–Holocene transition involved forest...

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