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Concept inventory (CI) development in higher education is an active research area. As evaluation instruments, the validity and reliability of CIs should be important considerations, particularly as these tools become integral parts of individual, department, or programmatic assessments. While methods used to establish validity and reliability vary, most researchers agree that qualitative data analysis is a necessary prerequisite to writing meaningful questions. The CI's strength as a proxy for conceptual understanding depends upon the link between inventory content and ideas held by the testing population. Most commonly, CI developers utilize qualitative data about student alternative conceptions to write incorrect response...

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