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Various types of evidence, including the size and volume of the Siberian Traps, the timing and duration of eruptions, paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions, lithospheric structure, heatflow, and the trace-element and radiogenic isotope compositions of lava, are reviewed in this chapter. The major evidence may be summarized as follows. The Siberian Traps erupted in a number of brief volcanic events from the Late Permian until the end of the Middle Triassic. They occupied a vast region (∼7 × 106 km2) in a back-arc tectonic setting. The overall volume of erupted rocks was as much as ∼4 × 10...

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