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The mantle plume concept is currently being challenged as an explanation for North Atlantic Igneous Province formation. Alternative models have been suggested, including delamination, meteorite impact, small-scale rift-related convection, and chemical mantle heterogeneities. We review available data sets on uplift, strain localization, age and chemistry of igneous material, and tomography for the North Atlantic Igneous Province and compare them with predictions from the mantle plume and alternative models. The mantle plume concept is quite successful in explaining the formation of the North Atlantic Igneous Province, but unexplained aspects remain. Delamination and impact models are currently not supported. Rift-related small-scale convection...

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