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Geoscience students often have difficulty interpreting real-world spatial relationships from traditional two-dimensional geologic maps. This can be partly addressed with direct, tactile field experiences, although three-dimensional (3-D) cognition can still be hampered by incomplete exposure of all spatial dimensions. Many of these barriers can be overcome by incorporating computer-based, virtual 3-D visualizations within undergraduate field-oriented curricula. Digital field equipment is fast becoming a standard tool in environmental, engineering, and geoscience industries, in part because of the increased accessibility of ruggedized computers equipped with global positioning system (GPS) receivers. Handheld computers with geographic information systems (GIS) software record and display data...

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