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Today, plate tectonics is the dominant tectonic style on Earth, but in a hotter Earth tectonics may have looked different due to the presence of more melting and associated compositional buoyancy as well as the presence of a weaker mantle and lithosphere. Here we review the geodynamic constraints on plate tectonics and proposed alternatives throughout Earth’s history. Observations suggest a 100–300 °C mantle potential temperature decrease since the Archean. The use of this range by theoretical studies, parameterized convection studies, and numerical simulations puts a number of constraints on the viability of the different tectonic styles. The ability to sufficiently...

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