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The eastern flank of the Appalachian orogen is composed of extensive Neoproterozoic–early Paleozoic crustal blocks that originated in a peri-Gondwanan setting. Three of these blocks record the evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatic-arc systems, including Carolinia in the southern Appalachians and Ganderia and Avalonia in the northern Appalachians. Relationships among these three crustal blocks are important for understanding both the accretionary history of the orogen and the evolution of the Iapetus and Rheic Oceans, first-order geographic features of the Paleozoic globe.

Traditionally, Carolinia and Avalonia have been considered to represent a single microcontinental magmatic arc that accreted to Laurentia in the middle...

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