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During the early 1980s, geoscientists worldwide realized synchrotron radiation was a highly valuable tool for in situ experiments, i.e., experiments under simulated Earth mantle conditions. MAX80 at Deutsches ElektronenSYnchrotron (DESY) – HAmburger SYnchrotron LABor (HASYLAB), Hamburg, a single-stage multianvil DIA system at a synchrotron beam line was among the high-pressure pioneer apparatus designed in Japan. MAX80 is equipped to perform ultrasonic interferometry in conjunction with synchrotron radiation measurements, i.e., X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-radiography. The maximum conditions are ∼12 GPa at 2000 K.

To make transition-zone conditions accessible and to achieve bigger specimen volumes, the sister apparatus MAX200x, a double-stage...

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