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The Missouri River and its tributaries in central South Dakota have eroded into the Pierre Shale, exposing a vertical sequence of late Campanian strata, from older to younger: the Crow Creek Member of the DeGrey Formation, upper DeGrey Formation, and Verendrye Formation, deposited during the transgressive phase of the Bearpaw cyclothem.

The DeGrey Formation (Baculites compressus Ammonite Range Zone) is predominantly gray bentonitic shale with interbeds of thin and relatively pure cream-colored bentonite and bioturbated, fossiliferous black manganese-iron carbonate concretions. Fossils are molds, casts, and fragmented shell material from a diverse epifauna of marine bivalve mollusks dominated by byssate,...

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