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The Nullarbor Plain of southeastern Australia, ∼200,000 km2 in area, is flat and mostly treeless. It contains widely scattered collapse dolines and a few hundred caves, some of which are large and extensive. Initial karst development probably occurred during the warm, seasonally wet climatic conditions of the Oligocene, when the withdrawal of the sea exposed the recently deposited Eocene Wilson Bluff Limestone for over ∼10 m.y. Several major conduits probably developed at this time. These were flooded by the return of the sea, which finally retreated in the late Miocene followed by regional uplift. Cave formation in the Pliocene...

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