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The eastern flanks of Mount Elgon, an early Miocene stratovolcano, host caves (∼150 m long, ∼60 m wide, ∼10 m high) of debatable origin. Many animals, primarily elephants, “mine” the pyroclastic bedrock for sodium-rich salts. Speleogenesis has been argued to be primarily zoogeomorphic, or primarily dissolutional with only minor zoogeomorphic modification. This report provides the first detailed mapping and geomorphological study of the caves. Speleogenesis is polygenetic and strongly related to lithology. Geological units are, from the top down, ∼2 m of dense pyroclastic agglomerate cap rock over which water falls, ∼10 m of more permeable agglomerate, up to ∼0.2...

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