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North American research on surface karst landforms has tended to focus on factors affecting the development and distribution of sinkholes. There have been important quantitative contributions to understanding the formation of solutional, suffosional, and collapse sinks, and a major series of applied geotechnical studies has been published. Gypsum karst, and the impacts of repeated glaciations and permafrost on carbonate, gypsum, and salt karst have received much attention in recent years. North American research dominated the general field of speleogenesis until the past two decades. There are well-understood models for dissolutional cave development in young, newly emerged limestones, for situations where...

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