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Carbonate speleothems are the most typical and widespread cave deposits, and the vast majority of them are considered to be inorganic. Nevertheless, the formation of a broad range of carbonate deposits in caves is intricately linked to living organisms. Although relatively unknown and largely regarded as features of limited significance, biologically mediated carbonate speleothems are diverse and numerous. They include formations such as certain dripstone and flowstone, some moonmilk and related precipitates, various subaqueous formations, rootsicles, encrusted mosses, stromatolitic speleothems, stalactitic tufa, and other deposits.

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