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The Ventersdorp Contact Reef, one of the major gold-bearing conglomerate horizons in the Witwatersrand Basin, occurs as a distinct horizon between the overlying Klipriviersberg Group lavas (2714 Ma) and the underlying Central Rand Group rocks (<2894 to >2714 Ma). The Ventersdorp Contact Reef has been metamorphosed and hydrothermally altered under greenschist facies conditions (290–350 °C and 0.2–0.3 GPa). A study of S, O, and H isotopes was carried out to constrain the sources of hydrothermal fluids and gold mineralization in the Ventersdorp Contact Reef. A narrow range of δ34S values (−1.5‰ to +1.8‰) for authigenic pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite,...

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