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Approximately 21,700 yr B.P., after a period of quiescence of ∼4800 yr, Nevado de Toluca volcano erupted, producing the Lower Toluca Pumice deposit. The activity generated a 24-km-high Plinian column that lasted ∼11–13 h and dispersed 2.3 km3 (0.8 km3 dense rock equivalent) of tephra toward the NE, blanketing the Lerma basin, an area occupied today by the city of Toluca, with up to 5 cm of ash. Subsequent eruptive pulses were sub-Plinian in style, accompanied by phreatomagmatic explosions that emplaced surge deposits. Finally, the column collapsed toward the NE with the emplacement of a pumice flow deposit....

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