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This paper summarizes the research efforts devoted over the years to the understanding of the origin and evolution of brines in the Dead Sea basin. These brines are characterized by a unique Ca-Chloride composition, which evolved from interaction of evaporated seawater filling the late Neogene Sedom lagoon with the Cretaceous carbonate rocks exposed at the basin-bounding escarpments. Following the disconnection of the lagoon from the open sea and the development of inland lakes, the composition of the ancient Sedom brine changed due to precipitation of evaporites and addition of salts from incoming fresh water. Relative to highly evaporated seawater, these...

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