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The Horton Group (late Famennian to Tournaisian) of Atlantic Canada provides an unusually complete record of Early Mississippian wetland biota. Best known for tetrapod fossils from “Romer's Gap,” this unit also contains numerous horizons with standing vegetation. The taphonomy and taxonomy of Horton Group fossil forests have remained enigmatic because of poor preservation, curious stump cast morphology, and failure to recognize the unusual sedimentary structures formed around standing plants.

Four forested horizons within the Horton Group are preserved as cryptic casts and vegetation-induced sedimentary structures formed by the interaction of detrital sediment with in situ plants. Protostigmaria, the lobed...

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