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Geological and geochemical characteristics of banded iron formations (BIFs) suggest that they formed by mixing locally (or regionally) discharged submarine hydrothermal fluids with local seawater, rather than by upwelling deep ocean water. Submarine hydrothermal fluids typically evolved from local seawater by acquiring heat, metals, and sulfur during deep circulation through a variety of rocks (e.g., volcanics, evaporites) in greenstone terranes that developed under a variety of tectonic settings. In general, when the fluids were heated above ∼350 °C, they may have produced Cu- and Zn-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMSDs), whereas those heated less than ∼200 °C were generally poor...

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