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REE and Nd isotope data indicate that most of the iron in banded iron formations is derived from hydrothermal sources but do not exclude a significant contribution from terrestrial sources, such as diagenetic recycling. A diagenetic model has been used to estimate the recycling of iron into overlying seawater, due to microbial reduction and dissolution at depth in anoxic sediment pore waters, followed by diffusion upward through a surface layer of sediment that contains oxygenated pore waters. Rates of iron recycling increase with higher pore-water dissolved iron concentrations, decreasing pH and temperature, and smaller thicknesses of the surface oxygenated layer....

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