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Sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) Zn-Pb-sulfide mineralization first occurred on a large scale during the late Paleoproterozoic. Metal sulfides in most Proterozoic deposits have yielded broad ranges of predominantly positive δ34S values traditionally attributed to bacterial sulfate reduction. Heavy isotopic signatures are often ascribed to fractionation within closed or partly closed local reservoirs isolated from the global ocean by rifting before, during, and after the formation of Rodinia. Although such conditions likely played a central role, we argue here that the first appearance of significant SEDEX mineralization during the Proterozoic and the isotopic properties of those deposits are also strongly...

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