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Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements suggest the existence of a rigid Panama-Costa Rica microplate that is moving northward relative to the stable Caribbean plate. Northward motion of Central America relative to the Caribbean plate is independently suggested by the April 1991 Costa Rica earthquake, active folding in the North Panama deformed belt, and a south-dipping Wadati-Benioff zone beneath Panama. Panama may also be continuing to collide eastward with the northern Andes. Rapid subduction is occurring at the Middle America (72 mm/yr), Ecuador (70 mm/yr), and Colombia (50 mm/yr) trenches. The northern Andes are moving northeastward relative to stable South America....

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