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At least 10 marine-influenced stratigraphic intervals have been distinguished in the Kanawha Formation. Marine units range from 3 to 34 m in thickness and have been divided into component sedimentary facies based on lithology, body and trace fossils, sedimentary structures, paleocurrents, and geometry. Offshore facies consist of dark gray laminated shales, whereas nearshore and littoral deposits are typified by interlaminated to thinly interbedded very fine sandstone, siltstone, and shale. Current ripple bedding (flaser, wavy, lenticular) and ripple cross-lamination are widely developed. Tidal influence was significant and is reflected by rhythmic textures and structures and bipolar paleocurrents.

Phosphatic brachiopods and burrowing...

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