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Paleomagnetic and tectonostratigraphic data for the northern Appalachians record Silurian closure of a major ocean, the Iapetus Ocean, that was bordered by the Laurentian craton and the Avalonian microcontinent. In Ordovician times this ocean consisted of at least two basins (Iapetus I and II) and extended from a paleolatitude of 10 to 20°S (Laurentian margin) to ca. 50°S (Avalonian margin); Gondwana was located yet farther south. Paleomagnetic data from the Middle Ordovician Robert’s Arm, Chanceport, and Summerford groups in north-central Newfoundland, which represent intraoceanic arcs and ocean islands, yield paleolatitudes of 30 to 33°S. In contrast, pillow lavas of the...

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