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India collided with the northern Kohistan/Asian plate at about 55 Ma. Subsequently, Asia has overridden India, developing a wide range of thrust slices at the top of the Indian plate. Balanced sections in the imbricated sedimentary cover of the Indian plate indicate a minimum displacement of more than 470 km since collision. This requires the Kohistan region to the north to be underlain by underthrusted middle to lower Indian crust, the internal ductile deformation and thickening of which accounts for the main overall crustal thickening beneath Kohistan. In the Besham area of north Pakistan, a stratigraphy can be documented for...

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