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The Penobscot orogeny in the Appalachians, the Grampian orogeny in the British Isles, and the Finnmarkian orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides are Late Cambrian–Early Ordovician events that characterize terranes having similar pre- and post-deformation features. Together they record a major orogen-wide closing of the Cambrian Iapetus Ocean basin.

The Penobscottian is the principal pre-Acadian deformation event in the Gander and related terranes of the Appalachians. The upper Proterozoic–Cambrian rocks deformed by it include subduction-related mélanges. In the northern Appalachians its timing is best constrained in northern Penobscot County, Maine, where polydeformed slate and sandstone (Grand Pitch Formation), dated Cambrian(?) by...

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