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Geologic mapping, structural analysis, gravity modeling, and magnetics indicate that the Phoenix, Texas, Chattolanee, and Towson gneiss anticlines near Baltimore, Maryland are part of a large refolded crystalline nappe system rooted beneath the Towson anticline. Map patterns and limited structural and geophysical data from the Woodstock, Mayfield, and Clarksville anticlines suggest they form a similar nappe system that has no clearly evident root zone. Grenville-age (1,000–1,200 m.y.) Baltimore Gneiss comprises the cores of the nappes; Lower Cambrian-Precambrian to Ordovician metasedimentary rocks (Glenarm Supergroup) compose the cover.

Three periods of deformation affected the Baltimore Gneiss (D1, D2,...

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