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Major ore deposits are associated with late-stage intrusive phases of a magma system that may have been preceded by ash-flow eruption and caldera formation. The ash flows that erupt from the top of a magma chamber at shallow depth tend to be silicic and enriched in lithophile elements. If a mechanism exists for concentration of these elements, ash flows, especially thick accumulations of them such as exist in collapse calderas, have ore potential. Uranium exploration should focus on ash flows and calderas. Base and precious metals are not associated with silicic differentiates; they tend to be dispersed by eruption and...

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